The most Complete Guide to Uxmal
Uxmal is surrounded by legends, myths, and anecdotes; poetic in its name and its history. The occupation of Uxmal dates back to 500 BCE., but it was a political and economic power in the Mayan Peninsula Puuc region during the IX and XII centuries.
Uxmal was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1996, and it’s considered one of the most important archaeological sites in the Mayan Peninsula.
It is located in the valley of Santa Elena, 62 kilometers from Mérida in the region known as Puuc, which means “hills” in Mayan, and it’s made up of 15 groups of buildings around courtyards known as the civic-administrative area, which is walled and occupies an area of 1 km from north to south and .6 km from east to west.
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Learn about Uxmal and The Pyramid of the Magician The Nunnery Quadrangle The Gobernors Palace The Great Pyramid the list goes on...
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When you come to Uxmal don’t forget to visit:
If you’re up to the walking challenge, you should also take a look at the Great Pyramid, a tall building that you can still climb all the way to the top to get an amazing view of Uxmal and its surroundings.
More about Uxmal
Little is known about the history of Uxmal, although the truth is that the key monuments, as well as the periods of maximum power and population, were from the late Classic period, although there are indications that it was inhabited in very long periods previous to the buildings we now know.
The occupation of the Archeological Site of Uxmal dates back to 500 BCE., but it was a political and economic power in the Mayan Peninsula Puuc region during IX and XII centuries.
The oldest references are those collected in the Chilam Balam of Chumayel (written in Mayan with Latin characters where the history of the Maya is related). With this base, and with the interpretations of the inscriptions of the rings of the Ball Court, it is estimated that Uxmal was founded in the seventh century, during the first occupation, in the classical period.
The second occupation was also registered in the Chilam Balam that took place in the 10th century by emigrants from the central lands of the Tutul Xiúes ethnic group, a trace of this can also be found in the buildings. The annals in Mayan language date the arrival of the Xiues to Uxmal between the year 987 and 1007. This group introduced the Nahua component and with them the cult to Tlaloc and Quetzalcoatl; the god of rain Chaac is present since before the arrival of the Nahuas and the great dependence on the rain that the inhabitants of the entire Puuc area had.
Pyramid of the Magician
Legend has it that the Pyramid of the Magician (Pirámide del Adivino) was built in a single night. Very unlikely because it consists of 5 structures from different eras, perhaps only the last and smallest structure on top was built in one night and that turned later on turned into the legend.
The Nunnery Quadrangle
The Nunnery Quadrangle was built from 900-1000, and the name related with nuns was assigned in the 16th century because it resembled a convent. The quadrangle consists of four palaces placed on different levels that surround a courtyard.
Of the different buildings that make up this palatial complex, several vault tops have been recovered, they are painted and represent partial calendrical dates from 906 to 907 AD, which is consistent with the Chan Chahk’ahk Nalajaw period of government.
Quadrangle of the Birds
The Quadrangle of the Birds is a courtyard bounded by four other structures that frame the Pyramid of the Magician, this set of structures was built in various stages throughout the life of Uxmal. The name Quadrangle of the Birds was given because of the figures of macaws decorating the west building.
The Ball Court
Its condition is very deteriorated, and it’s made of two constructions of medium dimensions that make up the sides of the court with the rings by which the ball was to be introduced. The originally carved stone rings were removed to protect them from the elements and were replaced by reproductions.
The Governor’s Palace in Uxmal is one of the most beautiful examples of Mayan sculpture and architecture, and one of the must-see buildings in the city together with the Pyramid of the Magician and the Nunnery Quadrangle.
It’s placed on top of a hill, characteristic of the Puuc region on a large platform that makes up three terraces. It was divided into 3 parts separated by very high transverse vaults.
The Uxmal museum is a small space with cultural elements that have been recovered during the archaeological exploration and gives an idea of what the visitor is going to contemplate inside the archaeological site.
It emphasizes objects of domestic and ceremonial use as well as sculptures and decorative elements that stand out in the architectural style of Uxmal and the Puuc region.
Temple of the Turtles
The Temple of the Turtles in Uxmal is one of the simplest decorated temples in the city, named because of the carefully carved turtle statues that adorn its cornice on the four sides of the frieze of the building.
This Temple was built in the late phase of the flourishing Puuc style or late Uxmal period between the years 800 and 900 and it is thought that it was part of the first substructure of the Governor’s Palace.
There are a couple of buildings known as Chenes Buildings that are on the west side of the Governor’s Palace. These 2 buildings are older than the platform, so they’re in very bad shape and seem to be set into the ground.
Their name comes because of the type of construction known as Chenes, an oddity for cities built in the Puuc region.
The Great Pyramid
The Great Pyramid in Uxmal is one of the few large Mayan buildings that you can still climb. It has nine stepped bodies and a stairway facing north that must have been a pyramid of similar magnitude to that of the Pyramid of the Magician.
There are four last steps to reach the top of the Temple of Great Pyramid in Uxmal named Temple of the Guacamayas, where there’s an entryway with a large mask of Chac. This Temple was built on the VIII century and it was decorated by a cornice, frets and a decoration of birds, specifically macaws, which gives the temple its name.
The Dovecote in Uxmal
The Dovecote is a building located next to the Great Pyramid towards the west that closes one side of a rectangular patio of 140m². This structure has a very remarkable tall crest resembling a Dovecote, hence its name. In one of the corners, there is a small pyramid crowned with a temple.
It is made up of nine staggered triangular units that rest on a row of pillars. This cresting is known to be of a specific peninsular type in early Puuc architectural, dated between years 670 and 770 a. C.
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